Environmental Quality and Sustainability
Environmental Quality & Sustainability
China’s impressive growth in economic output over the past few decades has been accompanied by increasingly serious environmental problems. Several of the country’s urban areas are experiencing some of the worst air pollution in the world, and water pollution and groundwater depletion also are severe problems in several parts of the country. And, China is now the world’s leading emitter of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas. In the coming years, China will be making important choices as to how to confront these environmental challenges. The choices will not only have important environmental consequences, but also broad economic consequences as well, since the economic sacrifices associated with different forms of environmental regulation vary greatly.
Abstract: Using field survey data collected by the authors, this chapter first describes groundwater markets in northern China that have been developing rapidly in the past two decades. Groundwater markets in the area are informal, localized and mostly unregulated. There is little price discrimination, and institutional characteristics tend to be similar in both high- and low-income villages. The privatization of tubewells is one of the most important driving forces encouraging the development of groundwater markets.
The Role of Agriculture in China's Development: Performance, policy determinants of success, and lessons for Africa
The lost decades for China in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s look remarkably like the lost decades of Africa in the 1980s an 1990s. Poor land rights, weak incentives, incomplete markets and inappropriate investment portfolios. However, China burst out of its stagnation in the 1980s and has enjoyed three decades of remarkable growth. In this paper we examine the record of the development of China's food economy and identify the policies that helped generate the growth and transformation of agriculture. Incentives, markets and strategic investments by the state were key.
Evidence on the Impact of Sustained Exposure to Air Pollution on Life Expectancy from China's Hua River Policy
A recently developed small area estimation technique is used to geographically derive detailed estimates of consumption-based poverty and inequality in rural Shaanxi, China. These estimates may be helpful for targeting since there is wide variability in poverty rates within Shaanxi but low levels of inequality within most counties and townships. We also investigate whether including environmental variables in the equation used to predict consumption and poverty improves upon typical approaches that only use household survey and census data.