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Journal Articles

China’s New Cooperative Medical Scheme Improved Finances of Township Health Centers but Not the Number of Patients Served

Kimberly Singer Babiarz, Grant Miller, Hongmei Yi, Linxiu Zhang, Scott Rozelle, Kim Singer Babiarz, Grant Miller, Hongmei Yi, Linxiu Zhang, Scott Rozelle
Health Affairs , 2012

China’s New Cooperative Medical Scheme, launched in 2003, was designed to protect rural households from the financial risk posed by health care costs and to increase the use of health care services. This article reports on findings from a longitudinal study of how the program affected the use of health care services, out-of-pocket spending on medical care, and the operations and financial viability of China’s township health centers, which constitute a middle tier of care in between village clinics and county hospitals.

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Journal Articles

Persistent Poverty in Rural China: Where, Why, and How to Escape?

Thomas Glauben, Thomas Herzfeld, Xiaobing Wang, Scott Rozelle
World Development , 2012

Using rural household panel data from three Chinese provinces, this paper identifies determinants of long-term poverty and tests the duration dependence on the probability to leave poverty. Special emphasis is given to the selection of the poverty line and inter-regional differences across provinces. Results suggest that the majority of population seems to be only temporary poor.

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Journal Articles

The Limits of Health and Nutrition Education: Evidence from Three Randomized Controlled Trials in Rural China

Renfu Luo, Yaojiang Shi, Linxiu Zhang, Huiping Zhang, Grant Miller, Alexis Medina, Scott Rozelle
CESifo Economic Studies , 2012

In this paper we present new evidence on the impact of health and nutrition information on anemia rates from three large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in rural China. Each RCT studies a different type of health education campaign designed in partnership with the Chinese government to reduce the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia among rural primary school students. These campaigns include single and multiple face-to-face education sessions for parents at their children’s schools as well as dissemination of written health education materials.

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Journal Articles

The Effects of Attending Selective College Tiers in China

Prashant Loyalka, Yingquan Song, Jianguo Wei
Social Science Research , 2012
We estimate the effects of attending the first versus second-tier of higher education institutions on Chinese students’ at-college and expected post-college outcomes using various quasi-experimental methods such as regression discontinuity, genetic matching, and regression discontinuity controlling for covariates. Overall we find that just attending the first versus second-tier makes little difference in terms of students’ class ranking, net tuition, expected wages, or likelihood of applying for graduate school. The results do show, however, that just attending the first versus second tier makes it less likely that students will get their preferred major choice.
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Journal Articles

Behind Before They Begin: The Challenge of Early Childhood Education in Rural China

Renfu Luo, Linxiu Zhang, Chengfang Liu, Scott Rozelle, Brian Sharbono, Jennifer Adams
Australasian Journal of Early Childhood , 2012

The main goal of this paper is to analyze the factors (access, attendance and quality of preschools) that may be affecting the educational readiness of China’s rural children before they enter the formal school system. Using data from a survey of 80 preschools and 500 households in 6 counties in 3 provinces of China, this paper documents the nature of early childhood education (ECE) services and the educational readiness of children aged 4-5 in rural China. We present evidence that ECE services are seriously deficient.

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Journal Articles

Estimating Returns to Education Using Twins in Urban China

Hongbin Li , Pak Wai Liu, Junsen Zhang
Journal of Development Economics , 2012
This paper empirically estimates the return to education using twins data that the authors collected from urban China. Our ordinary least-squares estimate shows that one year of schooling increases an individual's earnings by 8.4%. If we use a within-twin fixed effects model, the return is reduced to 2.7%, but rises to 3.8% after the correction of measurement error. These results suggest that a large portion of the estimated returns to education is due to omitted ability or the family effect. We further investigate why the true return is low and the omitted ability bias high, and find evidence showing that it may be a consequence of China's education system, which is highly selective and exam oriented. More specifically, we find that high school education may mainly serve as a mechanism to select college students, but as a human capital investment per se it has low returns in terms of earnings. In contrast, both vocational school education and college education have a large return that is comparable to that found in the United States.
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Journal Articles

Alarmingly High Anemia Prevalence in Western China

Renfu Luo, Xiaobing Wang, Chengfang Liu, Linxiu Zhang, Yaojiang Shi, Grant Miller, Scott Rozelle, Elaine Yu, Reynaldo Martorell
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health , 2011

Despite rapid growth in China, it is unclear whether the poor have benefited in terms of nutrition. This paper’s goal is to understand the prevalence of anemia among school children in western China.We report on results from seven cross-sectional surveys involving 12,768 age 8-12 students. Sample students were selected randomly from 283 primary schools in 41 poor counties of Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces. Data were collected through questionnaires and hemoglobin tests. The dataset represents 7 million age 8-12 children in poor western counties.

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Journal Articles

What is Keeping the Poor out of College? Enrollment Rates, Educational Barriers and College Matriculation in China

Xiaobing Wang, Chengfang Liu, Linxiu Zhang, Renfu Luo, Thomas Glauben, Yaojiang Shi, Scott Rozelle, Brian Sharbono
China Agricultural Economic Review , 2011

Opportunities to go to college and earn a degree have risen dramatically in China. Government investment into the college systems has skyrocketed and the size of universities has increased by more than five times over the past decade. With the rise in the opportunity to go to college, several questions naturally arise: Are the rural poor—perhaps those that would most benefit individually as well as provide spillovers to their home communities—being systematically excluded? If they are, what are the barriers that are keeping them from having access to higher education?

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Journal Articles

Early Commitment on Financial Aid and College Decision Making of Poor Students: Evidence from Randomized Evaluation in Rural China

Chengfang Liu, Linxiu Zhang, Renfu Luo, Scott Rozelle, Brian Sharbono, Jennifer Adams, Yaojiang Shi, Ai Yue, Hongbin Li, Xiaobing Wang, Thomas Glauben
Economics of Education Review , 2011

Many educational systems have struggled with the question about how best to give out financial aid. In particular, if students do not know the amount of financial aid that they are receive before they make a decision about where to go to college and what major to study, it may distort their decision.

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Journal Articles

College Education and the Poor in China: Documenting the Hurdles to Educational Attainment and College Matriculation

Xiaobing Wang, Chengfang Liu, Linxiu Zhang, Renfu Luo, Thomas Glauben, Yaojiang Shi, Scott Rozelle, Brian Sharbono
Asia Pacific Education Review , 2011

Although universities have expanded in size, it is unclear if the poor have benefited. If there are high returns to college education, then increasing access of the poor to college has important welfare implications. The objective of this paper is to document the rates of enrollment into college of the poor and to identify the hurdles to doing so.

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Journal Articles

Anemia among Students of Rural China's Elementary Schools: Prevalence and Correlates in Ningxia and Qinghai's Poor Counties

Renfu Luo, Linxiu Zhang, Chengfang Liu, Qiran Zhao, Yaojiang Shi, Grant Miller, Elaine Yu, Brian Sharbono, Scott Rozelle, Reynaldo Martorell, Alexis Medina
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition , 2011

Although the past few decades have seen incomes rise and increased government commitment to helping the poor, there is concern that a large fraction of children in rural China still lack regular access to micronutrient-rich regular diets. Insufficient diets and poor knowledge of nutrition among low income populations can result in nutritional problems, including iron deficiency anemia, which adversely affect attention and learning in school.

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Journal Articles

Conducting Influential Impact Evaluations in China: The Experience of the Rural Education Action Project (REAP)

Matthew Boswell, Scott Rozelle, Linxiu Zhang, Chengfang Liu, Renfu Luo, Yaojiang Shi
Journal of Development Effectiveness , 2011

Impact evaluation has become an increasingly integral part of development project design and execution in recent years. Many questions remain, however, about what methods yield the most compelling evaluations, and how best to implement them. The Rural Education Action Project (REAP) is among the most successful impact evaluation groups currently operating in China. The goal of this paper is to share five practical strategies that REAP has employed to maximize the effectiveness of our impact evaluations.

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Journal Articles

Community Service, Social Responsibility and Educational Performance in Rural China's Middle Schools: Evidence from a Case Study of Northwest China

Renfu Luo, Yaojiang Shi, Linxiu Zhang, Chengfang Liu, Hongbin Li, Scott Rozelle, Brian Sharbono
Journal of Moral Education , 2011

The overall goal of this paper is to try to understand in the context China’s middle school education system what is the tradeoff between community service and educational performance. In addition, we seek to understand some of the other effects of participation in community service activities. When students participate in community service, does their self-esteem rise and/or self-efficacy rise? Finally, we also want to know if students participate in community service activities will their sense of social responsibility rise.

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Journal Articles

Mapping Poverty in Rural China: How Much Does the Environment Matter?

Susan Olivia, John Gibson, Jikun Huang, Xiangzheng Deng, Scott Rozelle
Environment and Developmental Economics , 2011

A recently developed small area estimation technique is used to geographically derive detailed estimates of consumption-based poverty and inequality in rural Shaanxi, China. These estimates may be helpful for targeting since there is wide variability in poverty rates within Shaanxi but low levels of inequality within most counties and townships. We also investigate whether including environmental variables in the equation used to predict consumption and poverty improves upon typical approaches that only use household survey and census data.

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Journal Articles

Which Households are Most Distant from Health Centers in Rural China? Evidence from a GIS Network Analysis

John Gibson, Xiangzheng Deng, Geua Boe-Gibson, Scott Rozelle, Jikun Huang
GeoJournal , 2011

In this paper we have two objectives - one empirical; one methodological. Although China's leaders are beginning to pay attention to health care in rural China, there are still concerns about access to health services. To examine this issue, we use measure of travel distances to health services to examine the nature of coverage in Shaanxi Province, our case study.

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