China’s New Cooperative Medical Scheme Improved Finances of Township Health Centers but Not the Number of Patients Served
China’s New Cooperative Medical Scheme, launched in 2003, was designed to protect rural households from the financial risk posed by health care costs and to increase the use of health care services. This article reports on findings from a longitudinal study of how the program affected the use of health care services, out-of-pocket spending on medical care, and the operations and financial viability of China’s township health centers, which constitute a middle tier of care in between village clinics and county hospitals.
Using rural household panel data from three Chinese provinces, this paper identifies determinants of long-term poverty and tests the duration dependence on the probability to leave poverty. Special emphasis is given to the selection of the poverty line and inter-regional differences across provinces. Results suggest that the majority of population seems to be only temporary poor.
The Limits of Health and Nutrition Education: Evidence from Three Randomized Controlled Trials in Rural China
In this paper we present new evidence on the impact of health and nutrition information on anemia rates from three large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in rural China. Each RCT studies a different type of health education campaign designed in partnership with the Chinese government to reduce the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia among rural primary school students. These campaigns include single and multiple face-to-face education sessions for parents at their children’s schools as well as dissemination of written health education materials.
The main goal of this paper is to analyze the factors (access, attendance and quality of preschools) that may be affecting the educational readiness of China’s rural children before they enter the formal school system. Using data from a survey of 80 preschools and 500 households in 6 counties in 3 provinces of China, this paper documents the nature of early childhood education (ECE) services and the educational readiness of children aged 4-5 in rural China. We present evidence that ECE services are seriously deficient.
Despite rapid growth in China, it is unclear whether the poor have benefited in terms of nutrition. This paper’s goal is to understand the prevalence of anemia among school children in western China.We report on results from seven cross-sectional surveys involving 12,768 age 8-12 students. Sample students were selected randomly from 283 primary schools in 41 poor counties of Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces. Data were collected through questionnaires and hemoglobin tests. The dataset represents 7 million age 8-12 children in poor western counties.
What is Keeping the Poor out of College? Enrollment Rates, Educational Barriers and College Matriculation in China
Opportunities to go to college and earn a degree have risen dramatically in China. Government investment into the college systems has skyrocketed and the size of universities has increased by more than five times over the past decade. With the rise in the opportunity to go to college, several questions naturally arise: Are the rural poor—perhaps those that would most benefit individually as well as provide spillovers to their home communities—being systematically excluded? If they are, what are the barriers that are keeping them from having access to higher education?
Early Commitment on Financial Aid and College Decision Making of Poor Students: Evidence from Randomized Evaluation in Rural China
Many educational systems have struggled with the question about how best to give out financial aid. In particular, if students do not know the amount of financial aid that they are receive before they make a decision about where to go to college and what major to study, it may distort their decision.
College Education and the Poor in China: Documenting the Hurdles to Educational Attainment and College Matriculation
Although universities have expanded in size, it is unclear if the poor have benefited. If there are high returns to college education, then increasing access of the poor to college has important welfare implications. The objective of this paper is to document the rates of enrollment into college of the poor and to identify the hurdles to doing so.
Anemia among Students of Rural China's Elementary Schools: Prevalence and Correlates in Ningxia and Qinghai's Poor Counties
Although the past few decades have seen incomes rise and increased government commitment to helping the poor, there is concern that a large fraction of children in rural China still lack regular access to micronutrient-rich regular diets. Insufficient diets and poor knowledge of nutrition among low income populations can result in nutritional problems, including iron deficiency anemia, which adversely affect attention and learning in school.
Conducting Influential Impact Evaluations in China: The Experience of the Rural Education Action Project (REAP)
Impact evaluation has become an increasingly integral part of development project design and execution in recent years. Many questions remain, however, about what methods yield the most compelling evaluations, and how best to implement them. The Rural Education Action Project (REAP) is among the most successful impact evaluation groups currently operating in China. The goal of this paper is to share five practical strategies that REAP has employed to maximize the effectiveness of our impact evaluations.
Community Service, Social Responsibility and Educational Performance in Rural China's Middle Schools: Evidence from a Case Study of Northwest China
The overall goal of this paper is to try to understand in the context China’s middle school education system what is the tradeoff between community service and educational performance. In addition, we seek to understand some of the other effects of participation in community service activities. When students participate in community service, does their self-esteem rise and/or self-efficacy rise? Finally, we also want to know if students participate in community service activities will their sense of social responsibility rise.
A recently developed small area estimation technique is used to geographically derive detailed estimates of consumption-based poverty and inequality in rural Shaanxi, China. These estimates may be helpful for targeting since there is wide variability in poverty rates within Shaanxi but low levels of inequality within most counties and townships. We also investigate whether including environmental variables in the equation used to predict consumption and poverty improves upon typical approaches that only use household survey and census data.
Which Households are Most Distant from Health Centers in Rural China? Evidence from a GIS Network Analysis
In this paper we have two objectives - one empirical; one methodological. Although China's leaders are beginning to pay attention to health care in rural China, there are still concerns about access to health services. To examine this issue, we use measure of travel distances to health services to examine the nature of coverage in Shaanxi Province, our case study.